Section 1: Rethinking Hell
Print Grice is the global network scholar and founder of the Rethinking Hell project. The first section consists of evangelical leaders and critics of Conditionalism. It is stated in the book that evangelical leaders are the admirers of Conditionalism and work mainly on this paradigm. This sort of theological belief is not proving false the other theological beliefs.
The second chapter of the section is “Introduction to Evangelical Conditionalism”. Evangelical Conditionalism is a famous term about humans and destiny. According to this belief, human beings are immortal and depend entirely on the grace of God (Date, Stump, & Anderson, 2014). It is a familiar topic in the discussion of theology. It depicts that human beings are entirely depending on the grace of God for their existence.
Section 2: Influential Defenses of Conditionalism
In this book, the article of Edward F. Fudge is given as, “The Final End of the wicked”. The theological consideration is well described in this article and also with the promotion of their ideas. It also contradicts the traditional view of theology. In this chapter, there is a growing discussion on evangelical theory. In this paper, the view of unending torment is depicted against traditionalism.
In, “The Nature of Final Destiny” different views about the Day of Judgment are presented. A view is about salvation and condemnation is because of a lack of relationship with God. It is stated that some people are excluded from the final kingdom of God and are based on strong beliefs of individuals about the day of judgment.
The “Judgment and Hell” represents the argument of universalism which depicts the terrible and eternal reality of hell. In the doctrine, the traditional view is presented. The doctrine states that eternal punishment is an unending conscious experience. This is the view after death and for those who rejected the Christ crease to exist. It is also stated that many concepts are not explained well by New Testament.
In the section of “The Destruction of Finally Impenitent”, Pinnock expresses the deep emotional outrage for the unsaved. There is endless torment for the unrepentant. There are some issues presented related to Christology and Soteriology. These issues have been taken up in various periods in church history. There is a variety of factors that could impact social and philosophical thoughts.
The last, “The Case of Conditional Immortality” depicts the belief that God created man only potentially immoral. The state of immorality can only be gained through the grace of God. This is the only justification for conditional immortality. In this view, the teachings of the old and New Testaments are most preferable and divinely inspired. The doctrine of conditional immortality is totally different from conditionalism.
Section 3: Biblical Support for Conditionalism
In the “Doom of the Last” Gospel of Matthew is discussed four times. It is stated mainly in the book that those who believe in eternal conscious existence rightly identify with hell. It gives the teachings of new testaments about hell. Those who believe strongly on the day of judgment are strong believers and admirers of God’s existence.
New testaments are presented in the section of “New Testament Teaching on Hell”. In the New Testament, universal salvation is excluded by scripture. For the wicked, there is an everlasting punishment. It is an unending process of suffering.
In the section “Does Revelation 14:11 Teach Eternal Torment?” the eternal torment is defined for non-believers. It is already described in the previous chapter. It is stated that it is a painful and long-lasting torment for non-believers. The belief is strictly entrenched in the doctrines of the Christian church. It is the view that defines the pillars of conservative evangelical orthodoxy. It is an essential element of evangelicals ass the faithful belief. The doctrine is believed due to spiritual conviction.
The description of ‘eternal’ is given in the next section “The General trend of Bible Teaching”. The description of eternal is used for the everlasting torment. These represent the theories against ultimate restoration. The word ‘eternal’ is used as proof of the doctrine of everlasting torment. It is also stated that this suffering will be an everlasting state.
There are multiple claims about hell mentioned in the section “Claims about Hell and Wrath”. Powys depicts in this chapter the Universalist theory of salvation. It is centered around the theme that destruction depicts the fate of the unrighteous. The believers of Universalist theory face the opposition of ideas and also some serious losses against this point. It is stated by those believers that destruction must be instant but not everlasting.
Section 4: Philosophical Support for Conditionalism
In the first chapter, “Is the Soul Immortal” the general description of death is given. It is given that soul and body die together and Calvin opposes this idea. Death is the intermediate state of sleep. It is the constant belief that is associated with the belief in the immortality of the human soul. It is the major belief that the soul would live alive after the death of the body. The soul also has sense and intellect even after the death of the body.
The chapter “Divine Justice” questions the concept of divine justice. It is associated with the firm belief of individuals about their creator. There is a firm belief that there is eternal torment for non-believers. Ordinary human beings are not even able to judge God’s ways. There should also be no doubt about it.
The chapter “Divine and Human Punishment in the New Testament” makes most references to the divine judgment in the New Testament. It is stated that in historical experiences, the wrath of God is upon sin. The Day of Judgment will reveal the righteous judgment of God. The New Testament of literature is given from beginning to end.
The chapter, “A Kinder, Gentler Damnation” depicts the content of hell and not only the general concept of hell. It is stated that there are different forms of sin and it is due to forms of self-imposed or humanity-created hell. The concept cannot be brushed aside. It is the state of eternal and conscious torment.
The next chapter “The Future of the Totally Corrupt” depicts the soul and body as the main constituents of the human body. It is the soul that is the initiator of intentional action. The soul is also the subject of conscious experience. It is the vehicle of character and belongs to different beliefs and desires. It is the traditional concept of soul given over here.
Section 5: Historical Considerations
The chapter “The Development of Gehenna between the Old and New Testaments” depicts the steps of Gehenna tradition as for granted. The traditional concept is given in various Jewish writings. In this chapter, it is stated that the concept is regenerated. It is previously stated that the concept of Gehenna is early found in embryonic form. The concept is reconstructed with this new development in considerable detail.
The last chapter of the section “Conditionalism in the Early Church” depicts the concept of ‘Conditionalism’. It embraces the writing of Christians of the subapostolic age. The age is near to the age of the apostles. It is the early view presented at the start of the book. The writers of that time were listed as Clement of Rome, Hermas of Rome, Papias, and Polycarp of Smyrna.
Section 6: Conditionalism and Evangelicalism
The first chapter of the section “Hell and Evangelical Unity” depicts the traditionalist and conditionalist views of hell. The study of Derek is included which is the influential study of past and present evangelicalism. The recent doctrine about evangelical unity depicts the doctrine about the acknowledgment of conditionalist views. It is the concern that is also presented by many conditionalists. These views may expand the boundaries for evangelical orthodoxy.
The chapter “Diverse Christian Beliefs about Life beyond Death” depicts the belief about personal eschatology which is the Christian belief. It is the belief in life beyond death and has to do with the “Nature of Hell”. It is the traditional belief about hell that is the everlasting torment of the wicked. Some Christians believe that hell is extinction. The controversial interpretation about hell is that it is “conditional immortality”.
The last chapter of the section and book is “Equally Orthodox Christians”. This depicts the teaching of the New Testament about hell. It is stated that hell is the place where non-believers face eternal torment for once.
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