Part A

Was there willful blindness in Flint? Or are public officials more directly culpable?

Flint city changed its water supply from the river. This was the first area that made the situation viable to the crisis. Flint city was unaware of the crisis. The water source was switched from primary storage and the effects became prominent in building the crisis. The city was already under the poverty line and the quality of water posed a threat to water issues. The main culprits for this issue were the public officials which did not respond to the rising lead levels. After the tenure of one month, pipes were corroded due to contaminated water (Braddy Dennis, 2016). The report from the world health organization also reported that there were learning disabilities present in the mental changes. The Michigan office first gave the inspection certificate about river water safe for drinking purposes.


The crisis started from the exploration of the second alternative area for water supply. The public officials also focused on alternative water sites. When there was an idea of water alternate storage, authorities should have explored the feasible options. The river option is always vulnerable to lead additions. The sand particles and chemicals can be added from canals and beds. The addition of lead particles has made conditions of water rise to a dangerous level. This made the conditions hard for the resident in purifying water. If the water storage was purified with chlorine, the casualties may be reduced. Corrosion levels can also be controlled from the main foundation.

Water treatment was also not done indirect approach to the quality of water. This was the area where government officials did a blind mistake and lead was accumulated in the groundwater. This lead was the main area for filtration where government officials did not identify the problem. The people of Flint were affected by the crisis. This was a sensitive movement for black people as society has already created problems for their basic necessities. If water is affected by dangerous chemicals it will not only affect the lives of people but also the companies which are investing in the production sector (Merrit Kenedy, 2016).

The reports actually provided proof from General Motors where the corrosion effects highlighted the loss of the company supply line. Pipes were corroded and the manager of the company restricted the use of contaminated water.

How do you think the court will rule? Were they criminally liable? Legally not liable but ethically wrong?

The court will rule on this case in legal terms. The person which is responsible will be criminally liable for punishment. This is because the nature of the water crisis was severe and it affected the lives of people. Here people also lost their lives and companies lost products the cause of negligence. There are no chances of an ethical code of conduct because water forms the basic asset for people. Racial discrimination will also be identified as the point where emergency managers and officials did not understand the responsibility of assessing the nature of the crisis. The proof from the local water supplies sample clearly represented that lead particle was present in the water. The criminal charges were filed against 13 officials. These were charged with negligence and inability to understand the nature of the water crisis.


These types of events must be charged with server criminal proceedings. This is due to the inability of public group officials. Some concepts address that an ethical framework can be used for justification. The court proceeding’s ruled out the ethical case and provided legal preceding’s for felonies.

Part B

Regarding Government Budgets The Incrementalism Model (Championed By Lindblom).

The government makes budgets in order to control the amount of finance required for expenses ahead of the planning term. This was done with the help of a solid planning tool. Now if the concept of incrementalism is applied, there are chances for changing the nature of applied methods. This model actually applies the small increment approach to target the budget plans rather than larger jumps which can have a negative drawback. The government also increases the average budget in minimal steps. This is done to balance the remaining cash flows and provide public relief rather than changes in huge tax rates (Chon & Ahn, 2015).

If the incrementalism model is practiced then it will help the budget to target all the expenses and change the nature of cash flow. In the second case, if there is no concept of small changes, the budget will fail to address the initial targets and all the things will be targeted in the wrong way.

How does it change with the level of government?

This model changes when government outlines its benefits rather than the nature of steps required for a business plan. If in trying to change the income levels, small steps are converted into larger jumps it will benefit the government while the public and locals will bear the extra pressure of inflation. In deciding the future policies and budget government can have variation. This can be justified in a normal order as the government makes plans and the second government continue to make additional goals and forget the previous incremental model (Seki, 2017).


How is it affected by a divided government?

In the case where the government is divided, there are chances of flaws present in changing the nature of government opinion. The first thing is related to the change in policies. If the thought is to provide realization to the government, the action will help to decrease the level of inflation and provide prosperity.

Is it an effective model in reality?  Why or why not?

This model is effective in reality. The small steps can be applied to any practice area of the world. A small increment is always s reliable and secure which portrays a change in strategy. The budget and financial plan also agree on the incremental model and respond wisely to the new situation. This model will require a change in an area that can be related to increasing linkage in business structure and its implication. Effectiveness is only assed by the feedback model. The impact was observed with the help of customer response. The budget of a plan requires information about the audience and areas which must be highlighted before imposing actions. In some cases, plans do not fit in situations. Here the concepts of reality are used to simplify problems.

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