• The competition in healthcare is improving the standard of quality and healthcare competition is encouraging innovation. Competition in Healthcare is introducing the new technologies by which healthcare security increases.
  • Healthcare competition is beneficial for consumers because it reduces the cost. Healthcare competency is advancing the healthcare services by which consumers have health care Healthcare competition made the physicians and health professionals more efficient and caring.



  • In excessive competition, the consumer satisfaction and loyalty are
  • The competition in healthcare may lead the pharmacies, hospitals, and healthcare professionals to use unethical means to promote their business.

For-profit Hospitals

For-profit hospitals are owned by the shareholders of the public traded company or they can be owned by investors. The for-profit hospitals are serving the less income population or the poor population. The for-profit hospitals are allocating many resources to their marketing and advertising.

Non-profit hospitals

Non-profit hospitals are viewed by the IRS as charities that are providing benefits to communities. The non-profit hospitals are not providing state or local property taxes and federal income taxes. Non-profit hospitals are located in less poor communities or higher-income communities where few patients are uninsured. Non-profit hospitals are also doing marketing, they are allocating resources to advertisement and marketing to compete with the healthcare organizations although they have non-profit status.

Governmentally owned hospitals

Governmentally owned hospitals can be referred to as public hospitals. The governmentally owned hospitals receive funds from the government. Maximum public hospitals are providing free-of-charge healthcare services to all people. In governmentally owned hospitals the federal government is also contributing funds.

Many care physicians were of a negative view of the practice of managed care or hospital care. They have categorized the impacts in which the hospital care is affecting their practices. It is in terms of the physician-patient relationship, quality of patient care, and professional ethical obligations of physicians. It could limit the quality of health care while imposing many limitations. Those limitations are in sense of diagnostic stay, length of hospital stay, and choice of specialists.

On the other hand, physicians often are less able to avoid conflicts of interest. They also become unable to place the best interests of the patients first. The physician practice is purely in sense of increasing physician-patient communication. It is then asserted that hospital care makes no impact on informed consent or providing information. It is often posed certain limitations in the way of their ethical obligations and their regular practices.


Retail clinics like pharmacies and stores drive new healthcare utilization and that is a good thing. It has helped a lot to improve the health of individuals and many communities by reducing costs. It is the foremost advantage that retail clinics offer lower average costs than urgent care centers. The health care system receives expansion through these clinics and this could help to give accessible and feasible health options.

On the other hand, retail clinics lack in providing proper conditions for the health of individuals. The healthcare system is often affected by such practices which spread negative expansion. They could increase the risk of making healthcare more complicated. It could be in case of an urgent emergency patient. It could feel difficult in approaching the proper healthcare facilities for those individuals. In case of a life-threatening situation for the patient, the emergency service could not be provided by retail clinics often.

The healthcare system of the United States is lower in rating and in many areas. As compared to other developed countries, the US has higher rates of medical, medication, and lab errors. It includes medical mistakes, incorrect dosages or medicines, errors in lab tests, and also in abnormal test results. The condition is pitiable as compared to other developed countries Canada, Australia, and Germany. It is indicated that the ratio of such errors is higher in the US than in these countries at 22%. It is comparatively higher than Canada, Australia, and Germany where the ratio is 21%, 19%, and 16% respectively. The US has a higher infant mortality rate as compared to Canada, Australia, and France. The rate of deaths is almost twice the rate of Switzerland.



The rationing in health care saves them money, healthcare rationing is a money-saving measure because the insurance companies are rationing care. The rationing is saving money in part for the greater good. In healthcare, the profits are also preserved to increase the salaries and customer disdain. The health care rationing is limiting the doctor’s visits. The doctors will only charge you the one visit they have negotiated a minimum fee. Health care rationing is determining the ones who are getting what type of care. The rationing aims to reduce expenses by limiting the range of choices available for patients.


The healthcare requirement is fair dealing and justice. Healthcare is an issue of social justice and fair approach because healthcare services should available for all types of people whether they are upper or lower class. In case of unequal access to healthcare services the concept of justice applies. Healthcare access and equality in treatments and dealings are a matter of justice and fairness. Ethical and honest healthcare expenses should be charged. The unfair expense and charges create frustration in health care consumers and they will look for justice and fairness. The standard of service quality is subject to justice and fairness which is the basic need of each population segment.


There are many reasons why physicians are reluctant to go for Medicaid as an insurance plan. First and foremost Medicaid pays almost 61% of the amount that Medicare pays. This might not be a bigger problem if the pattern was not the same for most of the patients. So, due to the low amount of money physicians avoid Medicaid. Although this is not the only reason, many physicians also have an issue with the amount of time it takes to get reimbursement. On top of that, the amount of paperwork that the staff of physicians is forced to complete in order to get the money is also an inconvenience. All these factors combine to make Medicaid a non-preferred plan.


The focus on specialty care has definitely impacted primary care because of the fact that specialty care requires much more focus and attention from healthcare providers. It requires a special set of skills but at the same time offers much more money in return. That is why many healthcare providers focus more on specialized care. Primary healthcare services are now an under-rated concept and this can prove to be a dangerous thing for society in the longer run. The fame and fortune that is attached to specialized care have attracted most of the most brilliant minds and that is why primary care has faced a blow in the face.



Primary care setting

The primary care setting can be referred to as the “essential health care”. Primary care setting includes health maintenance, disease prevention, health promotion, patient education, counseling, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic and acute illness in various healthcare settings. It involves long-term care, daycare, home care, etc. The primary care settings made healthcare available and accessible to all families in the community and individuals in the community.

Secondary care setting

The secondary care setting is medical care which is provided by the facility upon referral by primary care or by a specialist that required skill, more specialized knowledge, and equipment than the physicians of primary care provider. In this care setting the healthcare is provided by medical specialists and the other health care problem specialist which have no direct interaction and contact with patients like cardiologists, neurologists, and dermatologists.

Tertiary care setting

The non-referral from secondary healthcare and primary healthcare settings moved towards the tertiary care settings. It is a specialized consultative healthcare setting that has advanced personnel, medical investigation, and treatment facilities. That type of healthcare involved serious treatment and injuries for example plastic surgery, cardiac surgery, burn treatment, and neurosurgery, and Cancer management, complex medical and surgical interventions. The tertiary care settings opened for 24 hours.

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