Professor Help

Sometimes, our mind develops non-helpful connections and tells us to believe some situations which are not true (Lu & Yeo, 2015).  These are accounted for as cognitive distortions. I personally believe or observe mainly some types of cognitive distortions as part of my personality such as always being right, overgeneralization, and filtering. It is somewhat a serious issue in which an individual suffers a lot from those false beliefs. It is the same with me when I felt that those false beliefs or cognitive distortions led me to take a negative outlook on the world by feeding negative emotions.


I personally affected by these cognitive distortions in sense of depression and anxious mental state. It results in continuous personality distortion for me. I also gradually isolated myself from other people in the social context. I think that it is a situation that is unthinkable for any individual. If I feel negative about others then this negative vibe will definitely affect others as well. I could not help myself to develop positive relationships with other people due to this distortion. I also feel great difficulty in terms of developing positive approaches for career development. The career is also negatively affected by these distortions.

The distortion of over-generalizing things has always compelled me to go into arguments with other people. I feel that people started to become isolated from me and they say that you could not always be right. It won’t give the fine concept of generalizing the things about other people. Later on, these distortions lead me to become anti-social and thus lose effective interaction with other people around me. Overall, the situation affected me a lot.


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Amazon, one of the most renowned names in the field of electronic commerce, started its operations on July 5, 1994, by Jeff Bezos. The company can be considered the largest technology giant in the world in the terms of market capitalization and revenues. It is the second-largest online retailer in terms of total sales. The history of Amazon includes many different mergers and acquisitions. Later, Amazon started an online bookstore, and then they started selling videos and audio streaming.



The major products that Amazon sells include books, videotapes, DVDs, CDs, software, consumer electronics, tools, apparel, groceries, kitchen items, musical instruments, beauty products, toys & games, sporting goods, and gourmet foods, industrial & scientific supplies, jewelry, and automotive items. There is a number of other products that Amazon sells. Amazon also owns many other companies where they sell many other products like green products etc.

Major Competitors

Amazon has been operating in different general segments like electronics, media, and many other merchandise products. The competitors of Amazon in all these segments are different.

  • The competitors of Amazon in the electronics market include Best Buy, Walmart, Target, RadioShack, Delia, etc.
  • The competitors of Amazon in the media segment include eBay, Google, Apple, Netflix, QVCB and Time Warner Cable, etc. In the segment of merchandise, Amazon competes with, Alibaba’s Group, PCM,, Zulily, Vipshop Holdings, and Wayfair Inc.
  • As the company also provides cloud computing services, the competitors in this segment are PC Connection,, CDW, Insight Enterprises, Citrix Systems, Oracle, Accenture, and many others.

Current Situation

Amazon started by Jeff Bezos has now become the largest online retailer in the whole world. The company has been progressing rapidly due to its vision and mission of Jeff. He defined that Amazon tries to invent new and creative ideas that no one has ever thought of. The company recently crossed Walmart in 2015 and became the world’s most valuable retailer. The company has been acquiring many businesses and retailers since it was formed. The financial history of the company shows that it has never been in a situation of loss in the market.

The company has almost 341,400 employees in the world and has been on the list of Fortune 500 for more than 16 years. The revenues earned by Amazon in the last fiscal year were $135,987 million which was 27.1% more than the previous year. The profit of the company was $2371 million. The stockholder equity of the company is $19,285 million while the market value of the company as of March 2017 was $423,031 million. The current market situation of Amazon has made Jeff Bezos, the richest man in the world. He just crossed Bill Gates in net worth. His current net worth is more than $91 billion.

If the market situation of Amazon is assessed with respect to its competitors, the company has experienced some shortfall in total revenues. The total revenues of the company have decreased by 0% in the 4th quarter of 2017 while the revenues of its competitors have decreased -by 82.83% in that quarter (CSIMarket, 2018). The combined profit ratios of the company also lowered in that quarter as compared to the combined profit ratios of its competitors. The market shares of the company increased in the electronics and media segment while in the merchandise and other segments, the market share of the company decreased a little bit.

It seems like Amazon has already matured and is saturated in the market but there are also some problems with it. The net worth of the company has already reached $175 billion in sales while it seems that the profits of the company are not that high as compared to the sales. The competition of the company has been increasing rapidly with a number of new tech giants joining the market on daily basis. The profit margins of some largest competitors of the company are already very huge which means that Amazon is not making enough money. Some of its competitors like Apple and Microsoft have been earning large profits (Ritala, Golnam, & Wegmann, 2014).

Amazon needs to reformulate its strategy in order to focus on earning more profits in the market. The company is already putting efforts to increase its sales and profits. It is expected that Amazon will account for 50% of the total E-Commerce sales in the US in 2021.


SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis helps to find out where the company can make profits, where the company is facing threats, where the company needs to change its strategies, and where the company lies in the market (Rothaermel, 2015). It helps to find out the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the company. This assessment can be used to reformulate the operational strategies of the company.


  • Amazon is the world’s most valuable retailer in the field of electronic commerce. The company primarily derives its strengths from three strategic thrusts differentiation, cost leadership, and focus. These strategic thrusts help the company to become a market leader and return the best shareholder value.
  • Amazon enjoys consumers’ top-of-the-mind recall in the international market. This recognition not only helps the company to enter the new markets but also has helped the company to earn customer loyalty.
  • The competitive advantage of the company is derived from its leveraged grip on information technology that helps the company to be scaled out on the top against its biggest competitors.
  • The company uses the best and superior logistics to deliver the customer products which helps to fulfill the customer requirements and expectations(Kantor & Streitfeld, 2015).


  • Amazon has been focusing on a diversity management program in which the company has been implementing new and advanced strategies to diversify its operations in the market. The company has been shifting its focus from core competence toward new areas and opportunities which is good for the company but it can also be harmful to the company.
  • The products are delivered free of cost to the customers which means that there are chances that Amazon may lose its profit margins on the products.
  • The major focus of Amazon in business is online retailing which means that this mindset can hinder entry into new global markets.


  • Amazon has been using online payment methods which increases the chances of the company being scaled up in the market.
  • The company has been diversifying its operations and has been introducing new products which can increase its market capitalization of the company.
  • The company can open more sites and can use social media as an advertising channel which can help it to grow even more.


  • The biggest threat to Amazon is the increasing concern over identity theft in online shopping.
  • The company has aggressive pricing strategies which can bring the company lawsuits from rivals and competitors.
  • The company has also been facing significant competition from many of the local retailers in the region.


Areas of SWOT Analysis

Amazon is a leader in online sales. This electronic retailer has allowed a change in technology for American commerce as well as the customers who trade using the utility of Amazon. Trends that support the facility of online retailers have also made a strong consumer policy to change the shape of the shopping experience.

In order to explore the key areas of the market, Amazon management has been effective in proposing strategic plans for the period of long-term planning. Management is planning to regulate the strength of the marketing platform in the eyes of development. SWOT analysis was conducted in order to explore the strength and weaknesses of the company. In identifying the strengths and weaknesses, there were new opportunities created for the online shopping facility. In identifying the opportunities, there were threats present to the company’s online service. This analysis helped to change the forecasting model for Amazon. In long-term planning, this company has identified three prospective areas where future work will be regulated. These areas respond to planning the development process.

Changing the payments channels and connectivity

Amazon has proposed a new plan in order to prepare for the future. This is noted in the form of payment options. The company wishes to open new smart ways of technology which will help users with the online shopping and retailing service. In the previous years, a method of payment was not secure. There were plans made in order to control the lag of price control but this approach was not sufficient to gather resources from customers and management.

The reason behind the strategic plan of payment options depends upon the profit as well as investment from company management. This plan was introduced due to the addition of new technologies in the market. There are fierce rivals in the online shopping market which poses a threat to the company. The company outlines the threat and creates an opportunity for the policymakers in order to step in and propose a protected system that will keep regard to the financial transactions. In the literature, business activities propose the concept of trust between the consumer and product suppliers. The marketing mix also considers people as the most important option in order to expand business in national as well as international ways.

The meaning of change in payment can be understood with the new mobile app technology where a user can independently receive and give money for cellular devices without any confusion of card and account verification. This will prove a big step for the Amazon Company as the management team is highly efficient in providing uninterrupted services to people. This will promote a strong customer relationship between the company and it will help to increase its profit in the future.

Using social media as advertising tool

Amazon can build a strong strategy for sales in connection with social media. Social websites are now becoming a norm in a culture that is open to freedom of life and choice. This store can easily classify the products and target a bigger market. This will be done by targeting specific groups for the initial promotion and then using the same sources to expand the sales network outside the country.

Literature also helps to support the marketing pattern. Here the term used for direct and indirect marketing comes insignificance and it can be practiced to raise the sale of the country and improve the financial records. This is the area where the company should plan to make an investment for the future as will help to remove deficiency in the online market.

Tackling competitors and building a reputation

The strategic plan will help to identify the potential customers and competitors which may become a threat to the online business. This can be proved in the form of online shopping areas like eBay and other companies which one hand pose damage to online shopping and also help to reduce the number of customers from the circle. The act of fraudulent services has removed the investment from this industry. The business concept also justified the use of market attractiveness in order to attract customers and develop trust in the demand and supply system. The reason behind this change and opportunity is the reputation that an online store has built from the stat of its foundation. This reputation becomes important for the company that wishes to plan a long-term investment for its potential buyers.


Methods to measure the success of the plan

The strategic plan includes the chances of adopting the areas which form the ground foundation of strategy. The strategy is to promote the online shopping experience as a useful utility for people. This plan depends upon users to understand the nature of the project. If users allow the plan to be implemented, the feedback from the customers will form the first measure of success. This feedback will be collected either through quantitative or qualitative analysis. The initial reports will give the nature of the plan and changes which are required in implementation.

The second method will be observed on the behalf of competitors. If solid planning is prosed under the management plan, then its effects are easily understood. The market stands as the first face of the plan. If there is room for service and the market shows an appositive response then plan success is guaranteed. If the inflation levels and debts increase on Amazon compliance, Management will formulate a policy to reduce the number of debts and become self-sufficient without the presence of any liability. The liabilities of a company reduce its transportation and cargo facilities. The importance of the warehouse also rises if the future model is highlighted. Amazon will manage its cargo services and find markets where it is viable to invest. This will be the part of the plan and its effectiveness will be measured when investment helps to produce the mainstream new customers.

This plan will also be measured by defining roles for the market. If Amazon Company has highlighted the planning in branches, it will be easy to incorporate and hold areas where feedback is required. Now technology is a tool to measure effectiveness. Human resource is also another tool that can help the company to gather expertise in business services. Plans are always measured by the relation of management and how the consumer-based approach is used to target market demand. This is the bright side for Amazon to work in the future and gather the goals for the plan made.

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Social media has been one of the most dominating things in this technological era. Every type of business has been using social media to target its customers. Social media helps businesses to grow more vigorously. The question that arises here is what type of social media channel should be used for social media marketing?


There is a number of different channels of social media that help the companies to stand out from the crowd. Different ways are used to market using social media. Some of the most significant social media channels are:


Facebook has been the major marketing channel in the world. Recently, the algorithm of Facebook has been changed. The brands that were getting much exposure in the past are now facing less exposure. There are many ways in which the brands can still use Facebook for effective marketing. The best way is to shortly introduce the brand and the offers which draw the attention. Another way to interact with the people on Facebook is by asking questions instead of making long statements.


Twitter is a great way to interact with people by increasing their followership. It helps the brands to keep in contact with the people. Twitter limits the posts to only 140 characters which means that the brands or the business have to be fast-paced and effective. The best marketing strategy for Twitter is to remain intact with the customers as much as you can. It means that the companies have to respond to every post and every mention in the posts to increase communication.



Images are an important part of the social media marketing strategy. If the image is eye-catching and attractive, it will draw the attention of the customers and will stop them from further browsing. The image can be anything like a landscape image, an animal image, or a funny image. These images then help for the optimization (SEO) of the web pages.


Content is the king of web pages or social media pages. If the content is eye-catching, the customer will stop browsing and will click the content to read it further. Be sure to create content that draws the attention of the target customers. Providing wrong or non-useful content to the customers may be time-wasting.

Community Building

Community building helps to increase customer interaction. Increasing the number of followers does not help for an excellent marketing strategy. The brand should be social enough with the customers to gain their trust after all being on social media means being as social as you can. Putting some humor in the posts may entertain your customers which is good for the marketing strategy.



Campaigns are also needed to increase engagement with the audience. Many businesses nowadays use cross-channel campaigns to gain more audience engagement. A successful campaign depends on the content and the components of the campaign. The content should be inspirational and emotional to draw out the attention of the audience. Using the interesting content in the cross-channel campaigns will help the business to increase its social media marketing.

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Review of Virtual Reality

Virtual reality comes from the idea of a virtual world which is a fascination for people. It actually creates a world that is full of real actions and experiences but the content is designed to give the audience an experience of amusement. Traveling using the power of technology has attracted talented people the technology. This technology has further incorporated headsets and instruments which can create a virtual space for users to train themselves either for the living experience or for stimulation (Hornbæk, 2017).



Virtual reality had grown into the form of a multibillion-dollar industry. The reason for the increasing demand and growth is linked with the exciting experience when the technology offers the user expertise. Now a day’s virtual world has been accepted in all domains. These domains have been established using the help of computers, which form real-life experiences. The concept of providing gaming experiences has increased the technology to enter the corporate world (Ohta & Tamura, 2014).

Virtual reality has attracted progress in the field of consumer behavior. The craziness in the consumer segment has provided professional changes to the VR market. This helps to increase the growth of the market. The market was made through a mixture of technical giants. This technology was once dreamed of by the scientist to take hold. There are benefits to virtual reality that can be used in the practical world. The first benefit is creating stimulators for an essential user experience. The skills of driving can be taught through the virtual world. This is the advantage of VR, which can be used to incorporate into the local systems. When a virtual space is created to train the young person it will reduce the number of casualties happening during the relief experience (North, North, & Coble, 2015).

VR reality is also used in entertainment services and most strong use is generated in the gaming experience. The latest development in China has involved the addition of headsets and trackers to the gaming experience. This has changed the amount of finance and the Chinese market has surpassed the US innovation in VR software. The turnover of this technology during the year 2015 gathered almost 230 companies to invest in the emerging technology of virtual reality (Laver, George, Thomas, Deutsch, & Crotty, 2015).

These companies include Google, Apple, and Microsoft. Virtual reality has increased the dynamic audio services and in some countries, the technology has even created a prototype suit to enjoy the virtual world. This includes the gaming experiences as well as the entrainment industry. At the start of the technical revolution, the headsets were made of cardboard and low-resolution displays were given with the help of mobilizing units. HTC launched headsets to revolutionize the customer’s experience. This was followed by Ocula and Samsung as the leading giant in mobile phones (Bissonnette, Dubé, Provencher, & Sala, 2016).


Virtual reality has been used in the film industry. The main idea behind the use of this technology in the film sector was related to the 360-degree environment. In the previous concept, 3D services were used for making broadcasts and movie premieres. The audience responded to the technology and gave a positive attitude towards the incentive program. This was the main revolution that leads scientists to invent the virtual world. The concept was initiated by the cinema industry where the fiction was presented through the use of computer graphics (Desai, Desai, Ajmera, & Mehta, 2014).

This technology has also been used in online games to give an experience to people halt captive from reality. The installation of a VR world in adventures and theme parks also goes for the plus point of the technology. The studies on this technology provide an effect on perception levels. This technology can be used for changing the development of young children who perceive the world in terms of sizes and distances.

This technology is also used in education to provide positive effects on nurturing the minds for talent and skills. For example, providing children with an example of the real world and removing the sense of consequences for children. The traveling experience may be portrayed to students when having a virtual experience. This will train the children towards real-life circumstances and can help to avoid damage.

Virtual technology has found its role in defense purposes as well. This potion has gathered improvement in America where the virtual world is used for making operational and training personnel for the war zone. The US Navy has used the science to train personnel for underground diving and submarine options. The aircraft simulator help to prepare the fighter pilots when the initial training purpose is practiced. If the direct method was analyzed there will be a loss of fighter planes and lives. This invention has saved the financial cost and helped the government to enhance the technology more fascinating.



To sum up this review studies, all the areas where the Virtual reality has made advancements. This small concept gathers a bloom in the industry due to its uses and real-life experiences. Humans have been researching virtual reality and the advancement made in the form of gadgets explains how technology has been proved successful. Virtual reality has attracted fame in Asian countries whereas the West is still on the path to excellence. There is a number of uses of virtual reality in life and it is a great invention of science.

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Podcasting is a service that drives a person towards listening and enjoying regular activities. When a person is busy with routine work, the little break from the radio stations helps to make the work more interesting and captivating. Podcast has been adopted in developed countries, as a medium for expansion. There is little consideration about the future because the advent of technology has created changes in listening habits. Smartphones and gadgets have removed the worth of Podcasting from social circles and the masses rely on smartphones for an interesting experience.


The experience of the podcast has increased for a decade. The first introduction to Podcasting was made by Apple services. This was the example of the year 2005 when iTunes was linked with the store to gather the radio stations. The main listening station was meant to be iPod where people use innovative entertainment devices for listening as well as enjoying music services. The British Broadcasting Center used the podcasting services in public.

There was a slight change intended for podcasting in America as the minute quantity of people were aware of the services and the remaining personnel was unaware of podcasting and its uses. The future of podcasting will remain in serious doubt because this tool is getting obsolete in the coming years. The masses have decreased the use of podcasting. This is devoted to interest. Most podcasting stations are not delivering complete content to the audience. This makes the people more optimistic about selecting the podcast stations.

The initial wave was based on the trial method but when the podcasting gathered fame the station put subscription fees for every user. This helped to make a change in listeners. There was a change in trend made by the addition of technology. When technology enters the competition there are competitors which remove the conventional techniques of listening and open up attracting programs for viewers for podcasting services.

The future of podcasts relies on monetizing the services for people. If the financial circles keep on growing for podcasts then there are future horizons. Podcast has been highlighted in the Wall street journal ass the future of the listener devices. Yet the scarcity of funds keeps a deep drive to the business. The major steps which are taken to secure the future are the content and originality of broadcasting stations. The advertisement process is an excellent tool for podcasting stations and increasing the number of audiences. The statistics suggest that about 34 million US dollars were collected from podcasting techniques. This was the initial wave of advertisements made through billboards.

The market of podcasting has famous companies and organizations involved. This makes the future more prosperous as the market player can expand the approach of podcasting stations and build this idea in the form of industry. In order to build a bright future for the podcast, the financial factors become a deep challenge. First is the amount of data available to gather funds. This can be attributed to listeners who focus on Mp3 songs. This point needs to explain in depth because if the podcasting stations can regulate the number of downloads, users can be regulated in number. Podcast has increased the episode of online content.


If the initial ideas are gathered in the form of a reversal. The market penetration put a hurdle for the future of podcasts. In terms of expansion, if the money matter can be regulated, this will remove the backwardness from radio and television content. One step for direct marketing will use the online content for a subscription. The future of podcasting will also be regulated with additional steps for advertisement.

Podcasting is an online tool. It can have a better future if the audience and people are regulated with interactions and content is tailored to interest rates. The view did not state the initial lag of the podcast. This station is already gathering advertisements from American and British media. The UK channel has produced a great podcasting station that can be used as a guide of language.

There are inventions in Podcasting stations which is a move for the next generation. The addition of Stitcher is though as the frequent player of the podcasting stations. Yet there have been some serious concerns about the application. The application changed the podcasting technique which involved direct ads. This model was used to have a step on future of the podcasting.

Future can be linked to the measurement problem. The change in publishers’ behavior and advancement in technology push additional factors for podcasting. This will change the trend of listening patterns. In the future podcasting will not be linked to gadgets. The world will be open to streaming and there will be devices available to give a live feed of stations to the users. The concept of entries and subscriptions will be waived off and the channels will have content attracting the attention of every user.

In my view, the future breaks the modern concept of podcasting but the subscription methods will make a change in user demand. The podcast can be linked to online social content. This can get an increasing number of new customers and expand the voice over the rest of the globe. The future of podcasting plays out serious questions and insight for people which can prove an advantage as well as a disadvantage for the podcasting station. I think that the future will be a mix of technology and podcasting stations where the original content and the live feed will be regulated with the help of a change in podcasting techniques.


The future of podcasts will be dependent on user awareness and how the technology helps to increase the number of listeners. Podcasting is a tool that allows millions of users’ liberty to documentary services and language expertise. Developed countries have invested in the future of the podcast. This technique will form a mix of the audience and gain popularity in the audience.

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School violence can be defined as the circumstances where the children are subjected to the risk of hatred and inhumane behavior. In America, there are cases of violence reported in minors. School violence can be contributed to factors, which help to change the peaceful environment of the school. Education activities are changed and children face the pressure of suppression which is against the culture of society. The use of arms in primary and secondary schools has caused incidents where six children have lost their lives. Violence is the other form of using power for activities that are inhumane and demoralizing. Knife crime has also taken a rapid pace to increase the amount of violence against children who face critical conditions during the start of education activities. (Skiba, 2014)


Brief Discussion

School violence becomes a dark picture for the multiple states in America. The information given from the annual survey of America delivers the situations of school. The violent cases during the twentieth century have been reported just like health issues. The violent crimes regarding robbery and assault activities have highlighted the school violence (Howard, 2016).

The main reason for the increase in school violence is the gap in parent care. Parents have less time for children who require attention in development ages. The school authorities are also responsible for creating incidents of violence. The groups which have to reach violent circles outside the environment of school force pressure on the administration to present a panic situation in normal regulations (Simon & Johnson, 2015).

The relationship of a parent is a strong bond that helps to provide children protection against the wrong circles which promote violence. When this relationship weakens and children are pressurized to face the realities of changing climatic situations, violence comes into play. The job of parents is to give love to the young ones and regulate the suspicious activity (Ballantine & Hammack, 2015).

The capitalist nature has changed the life circle of people. In developed countries due to the survival race, parents forget to care for their children. When minors are open to education, ethical societies have their own culture and trends. Sometimes the children are suppressed from violence from the ethical background. This may be either due to climatic conditions where the violence is used to spread fear among people (Darling-Hammond, 2015).

The major responsibility of parents is to keep cooperation with the kid’s activity and regulate the places where children spend most of the time. Violence always enters the environment. If the surroundings are conducive to providing violent actives and promoting criminal techniques children will adopt the violence as a regular habit and practice in the surroundings (Palmer, 2017).

State institutions have also promoted school violence. This comes in the case when the few groups in school try to use force or pressure for money-related activities or social circles. Parents feel that children will adjust to the environment. There is no active participation mate from the school to the guardian which can protect the young ones from Violence. The effects of violence on young minds are very aggressive. School violence promotes a sense of insecurity. Children feel unsafe with their parents and most of the time is spent with their friends for illegal activities.

A good parent can be highlighted which becomes a role model for reducing the activities of violence. The people with ignorance try to blame the society and state for violence. In some cases, the blame appears to be true. For example, in the case of Arizona and California, there was state involvement in violent activities to train children for criminal procedures. The school was turned into violent machines and children had a threat by the countryside (Case & Meier, 2014).

Children can be protected from school violence through acts of identification and teaching. This group can be taught the basic steps to refrain from violence and promote a sense of belief and self-confidence in life. This can be taught from the positive influence of the parents who are the guiding star for the children.

The report presented by the America association helps to identify the children which are prone to domestic violence. This involves the loss of tempers as the basic seed of violence. This will affect the environment of the school and cause incidents like sexual assault and torture. Sometimes the violence may be elevated to the risk of robbery which comes under the classification of state-sponsored violence.

Parents can save and protect their loved ones from violence. This will require steps for taking awareness in the school environment. The administration should gather the attention of all parents and regulate the activities on daily basis. An intervention of security forces should be applied inside and outside the school for regulating the violence. Children should be taught to refrain from negative groups which promote violence in school. Knife crime should be avoided at an early age in school.



School violence has been the major cause of disruption in developed as well as underdeveloped countries. This incident has taken innocent lives and destroyed the future of many children. The main flaws lie in the nature of children and the degree of attention from parents. In America, children face an inferiority complex which increases the chances of domestic violence. Parents should protect children from these negative things. A regulatory and attention must be given to each sibling in the early phases of development. Children must be protected from violence and allowed to breathe in an environment that has no direction toward the negative activity.

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Effective listening is carried out by gathering information from the speakers with attention to detail. An effective listener relates to the interest of the individuals. This makes the audience clear to receive the message and provide positive feedback. My point, effective listening is more important than speaking talent. In the coming points, I will support the point of listening to solid logic and specific reasons (Brookhart, 2017).

The importance of an effective listener can be renowned through the level of engagement being done during the conversation. When a positive discussion is made the attention-seeking people will go towards wider acceptance. The person who focuses on listening instructions will deliver more effectively than the individual who focuses on talking and discussing irrelevant points (Braithwaite, 2016).



The communication methods can be discussed through means involving the use of eye contact and correct posture. When the effective listener is participating in-class lectures or open audience the main skill comes with the body language. One of the attributes of an effective listener comes in the form of listening to detail for the statements and responding to the crosstalk  (Van Eemeren & Henkemans, 2016).

Group discussion comes when the listening period comes to end and the speakers want feedback from the audience. Effective listeners actually suggest new methods to make the discussion prolong and change the argument for the people who continue to talk without any solid reasons. These groups are actually affecting the mind efficiencies and storing capabilities.

There are comments regarding effective listening techniques. Some say that if a person is an effective listener he can change the words with the ability to learn from the listening as compared to the discussion. The argument clearly states that when a person is an effective listener he focuses on listening, which can be used for dialogue. It is proved through the ability of dialogues with people that an effective listener benefits more as compared to an effective communicator. This gives the space for people who clearly listen to those responses, which denies the presence of logic in the discussion.

The main point depends on the dialogue which will continue even if the effective listener responds against the dialogue. There is a mix of two ideas present in order to support the argument. The argument clearly states that an effective listener stands for giving an important description of events. The change will also be affected by the discussion. In order to present the view effectively talking will be required. This is an essential part of communication and it cannot be denied because people’s views are only communicated d with the help of discussion (Hinkel, 2015).

The argument proves strong for effective listening only when the person had a grip on the details. If the listening is grabbed with attentive details, the dialogue will also be affected. This will prove a weak activity and energy will be wasted in talking out to share ideas for effective listening.



To sum up all the thoughts, I agree that effective listening is required to give logical dialogue in the discussion. If listening is carried out with details, a person can develop strong communication skills for communication and deal with society and people. This essay highlights the importance of effective listening and makes a clear argument for the virtues of the technique. The main argument supports effective listening to the discussion. There is evidence supporting the argument. Society and people change their views towards listening procedures.

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  • The competition in healthcare is improving the standard of quality and healthcare competition is encouraging innovation. Competition in Healthcare is introducing the new technologies by which healthcare security increases.
  • Healthcare competition is beneficial for consumers because it reduces the cost. Healthcare competency is advancing the healthcare services by which consumers have health care Healthcare competition made the physicians and health professionals more efficient and caring.



  • In excessive competition, the consumer satisfaction and loyalty are
  • The competition in healthcare may lead the pharmacies, hospitals, and healthcare professionals to use unethical means to promote their business.

For-profit Hospitals

For-profit hospitals are owned by the shareholders of the public traded company or they can be owned by investors. The for-profit hospitals are serving the less income population or the poor population. The for-profit hospitals are allocating many resources to their marketing and advertising.

Non-profit hospitals

Non-profit hospitals are viewed by the IRS as charities that are providing benefits to communities. The non-profit hospitals are not providing state or local property taxes and federal income taxes. Non-profit hospitals are located in less poor communities or higher-income communities where few patients are uninsured. Non-profit hospitals are also doing marketing, they are allocating resources to advertisement and marketing to compete with the healthcare organizations although they have non-profit status.

Governmentally owned hospitals

Governmentally owned hospitals can be referred to as public hospitals. The governmentally owned hospitals receive funds from the government. Maximum public hospitals are providing free-of-charge healthcare services to all people. In governmentally owned hospitals the federal government is also contributing funds.

Many care physicians were of a negative view of the practice of managed care or hospital care. They have categorized the impacts in which the hospital care is affecting their practices. It is in terms of the physician-patient relationship, quality of patient care, and professional ethical obligations of physicians. It could limit the quality of health care while imposing many limitations. Those limitations are in sense of diagnostic stay, length of hospital stay, and choice of specialists.

On the other hand, physicians often are less able to avoid conflicts of interest. They also become unable to place the best interests of the patients first. The physician practice is purely in sense of increasing physician-patient communication. It is then asserted that hospital care makes no impact on informed consent or providing information. It is often posed certain limitations in the way of their ethical obligations and their regular practices.


Retail clinics like pharmacies and stores drive new healthcare utilization and that is a good thing. It has helped a lot to improve the health of individuals and many communities by reducing costs. It is the foremost advantage that retail clinics offer lower average costs than urgent care centers. The health care system receives expansion through these clinics and this could help to give accessible and feasible health options.

On the other hand, retail clinics lack in providing proper conditions for the health of individuals. The healthcare system is often affected by such practices which spread negative expansion. They could increase the risk of making healthcare more complicated. It could be in case of an urgent emergency patient. It could feel difficult in approaching the proper healthcare facilities for those individuals. In case of a life-threatening situation for the patient, the emergency service could not be provided by retail clinics often.

The healthcare system of the United States is lower in rating and in many areas. As compared to other developed countries, the US has higher rates of medical, medication, and lab errors. It includes medical mistakes, incorrect dosages or medicines, errors in lab tests, and also in abnormal test results. The condition is pitiable as compared to other developed countries Canada, Australia, and Germany. It is indicated that the ratio of such errors is higher in the US than in these countries at 22%. It is comparatively higher than Canada, Australia, and Germany where the ratio is 21%, 19%, and 16% respectively. The US has a higher infant mortality rate as compared to Canada, Australia, and France. The rate of deaths is almost twice the rate of Switzerland.



The rationing in health care saves them money, healthcare rationing is a money-saving measure because the insurance companies are rationing care. The rationing is saving money in part for the greater good. In healthcare, the profits are also preserved to increase the salaries and customer disdain. The health care rationing is limiting the doctor’s visits. The doctors will only charge you the one visit they have negotiated a minimum fee. Health care rationing is determining the ones who are getting what type of care. The rationing aims to reduce expenses by limiting the range of choices available for patients.


The healthcare requirement is fair dealing and justice. Healthcare is an issue of social justice and fair approach because healthcare services should available for all types of people whether they are upper or lower class. In case of unequal access to healthcare services the concept of justice applies. Healthcare access and equality in treatments and dealings are a matter of justice and fairness. Ethical and honest healthcare expenses should be charged. The unfair expense and charges create frustration in health care consumers and they will look for justice and fairness. The standard of service quality is subject to justice and fairness which is the basic need of each population segment.


There are many reasons why physicians are reluctant to go for Medicaid as an insurance plan. First and foremost Medicaid pays almost 61% of the amount that Medicare pays. This might not be a bigger problem if the pattern was not the same for most of the patients. So, due to the low amount of money physicians avoid Medicaid. Although this is not the only reason, many physicians also have an issue with the amount of time it takes to get reimbursement. On top of that, the amount of paperwork that the staff of physicians is forced to complete in order to get the money is also an inconvenience. All these factors combine to make Medicaid a non-preferred plan.


The focus on specialty care has definitely impacted primary care because of the fact that specialty care requires much more focus and attention from healthcare providers. It requires a special set of skills but at the same time offers much more money in return. That is why many healthcare providers focus more on specialized care. Primary healthcare services are now an under-rated concept and this can prove to be a dangerous thing for society in the longer run. The fame and fortune that is attached to specialized care have attracted most of the most brilliant minds and that is why primary care has faced a blow in the face.



Primary care setting

The primary care setting can be referred to as the “essential health care”. Primary care setting includes health maintenance, disease prevention, health promotion, patient education, counseling, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic and acute illness in various healthcare settings. It involves long-term care, daycare, home care, etc. The primary care settings made healthcare available and accessible to all families in the community and individuals in the community.

Secondary care setting

The secondary care setting is medical care which is provided by the facility upon referral by primary care or by a specialist that required skill, more specialized knowledge, and equipment than the physicians of primary care provider. In this care setting the healthcare is provided by medical specialists and the other health care problem specialist which have no direct interaction and contact with patients like cardiologists, neurologists, and dermatologists.

Tertiary care setting

The non-referral from secondary healthcare and primary healthcare settings moved towards the tertiary care settings. It is a specialized consultative healthcare setting that has advanced personnel, medical investigation, and treatment facilities. That type of healthcare involved serious treatment and injuries for example plastic surgery, cardiac surgery, burn treatment, and neurosurgery, and Cancer management, complex medical and surgical interventions. The tertiary care settings opened for 24 hours.

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America has gone through a major change of industrialization after the American civil war. This industrialization has brought major changes in the modern era but specifically in the periods between 1865 and 1920. The three major aspects in which industrialization brought crucial changes are economy, society, and politics. There is strong growth in each and every aspect during this period.


Literature Review

The period of industrialization has approved major changes throughout the country in many fields including the economy. The structure of industries also gets better and this opened the doors for many people. People got new working opportunities and they moved toward a better living standard. The economy of the country seems to receive miracle manufacturing in various fields.

In the first place, the quality of employment is affected in America due to this industrialization. The major focus is on labor markets and all changes have been brought through the development of the labor market (Ramos, Sehnbruch, & Weller, 2015). There has been a focus on job numbers and productivity. Ramos and the team discussed the implication of occupational status for employment quality in their research done in 2015. Depending on this quality of employment many social dilemmas have been solved. It goes for stabilizing more formal employment and social protection as well.

Furthermore, it is indicated that the industrial revolution has brought many negative implications as well. The revolution has brought suffering for many of its admirers and the chain is still continued. An example is the factory system which has imposed multiple regulations on each and every group of society. The working system in factories coined many negative health outcomes. The average worker in America got exploited in this way. Other than these, there are many deregulations within the lower order which formed the basis for society. However, it would be feasible to say that more power is gained through the workforce.

The political implications have seen the major global economic power. It also observed the major clash between traditional culture and modern progress and also the passage of labor-related legislation. The result of civil war is in form of conflict between the agrarian societies which is relied on slave labor (Rothstein, 2011). It becomes the type of society that paid for employees for fueling the consumer economy. Urban workers started to merge with a political class which encouraged the passage of legislation.

The Industrial Revolution has also observed the predominant position of capitalism. It is the concept that emerged in the context of the wealth of nations and the major wealth is in hands of industrialists. The major fluctuations are tied to the consumer market and this depends on a large population and vast natural resources. During the industrial revolution, this thing has helped to gain a major advantage in the internal and international consumer market.



In this paper, findings are related to the impacts of the industrial revolution on three specific groups of American society while considering the issues like race, ethnicity, gender, and child labor. These groups included the middle and lower class, women and children, and Native Americans.

The group of social classes emerged during the period of the industrial revolution. This class system is based on the hierarchy of financial status and race. Quality employment is initiated due to the upper class. The concept of social classes emerges during this period. The concept of the working class emerges but this was not positive as the middle class. Child labor is also in the great ratio in this class.

The second group consists of women and children. Women received major progress as they got equal opportunities in each and every field. They got the chance of stepping out of the home and earn better financial opportunities in various fields (Gereffi & Wyman, 2014). These and other movements were not successful as these threatened the identity of women. This has also increased the financial pressure on women. In society, women were not valued often and even these are kept on low wages. They were in miserable condition. They were in miserable condition and over-burdened with the major responsibilities to earn the bread and butter for the family. They were suppressed due to societal pressure.

The group of Native Americans was also got affected due to this growing urbanization and industrialization. The people who were migrating from other cities received fewer chances of employment and also quality employment. The government was unable to provide quality employment to all those immigrants. This thing had created deplorable living conditions for those Native Americans. The lower class condition was also miserable for those Native Americans.

The life of the average American worker transformed greatly in this period. There were a lot of opportunities and troubles that awaited the average workers. Mostly it was the troubles that were faced by the working class because of the fact that the working conditions were tough and the wages were low.


Overall, it can be said that the industrial revolution affected the life of the average working American. There are many other poor conditions such as miserable living conditions, low wages, improper housing facilities, and lack of legal projection for the violation of rights which are linked with the industrial revolution. Society has started to go toward debts and it is almost impossible to get rid of those debts. Therefore, the industrial revolution has made a dual impact on the progress of society.

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Covenantal Apologetics by KS Oliphint

Apologetics is a complete discipline that tends to defend religious faith on the basis of systematic arguments. It tends to prove the religious doctrines with the use of arguments and examples. Scott Oliphint is a Ph.D. holder in theological studies. He wrote a book named Covenantal Apologetics. The Covenantal Apologetics book defends the Christianity beliefs using arguments. The book presents pre-suppositional apologetics and the methods that can be used to shield a religious belief. This paper is intended to summarize the whole book.

Oliphint has divided the book into two parts. In the first part, he used the biblical principles and theological beliefs for the Covenantal defense of Christianity. While in the other part, he described how these principles can be used in defending the objections against Christianity. Let’s discuss the book according to the chapters.

Chapter 1- Always Ready

The first chapter is intended to lay down a foundation that can help to study the insights of pre-suppositional apologetics[1]. The biblical and Christian foundation has been used to define the study of Covenantal Apologetics. Basically, Christianity is based on the rules and principles defined by Bible. According to Bible, Christianity apologetics is based on the lordship of Christ. Christ is defined as the founder of Christianity. Bible has provided a pathway within which the believers should always remain. The one who goes outside these fence lines may be tossed out of Christianity. The objections to Christianity arise solely outside the fence line of the Bible.

The first chapter also provides ten points that lay the foundation principles for CovenantalApologetics. [2]

  • The defense of Christianity should start with the triune of God (Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit).
  • The defense of Christianity Apologetics should be based on the God’s Covenantal
  • The Covenantal change from Adam to Christ depends solely on God’s revelation and the work of the Holy Spirit.
  • Male and female are the image of the covenant of triune God as a matter of eternity.
  • All people in Christianity believe in true God and His Covenantal Obligations in the religion.
  • Adam and his followers suppress the truth while the followers of Christ always strive to reveal the truth.
  • Christianity is true and any opposition to it is false because of the absolute and Covenantal antithesis between Christianity and any other opposition.
  • The unbelieving positions have Christianity context in them in some or other form because the suppression of truth is not absolute but total.
  • The persuasion in apologetics is due to the Covenantal and true knowledge of God in everyone.
  • All the facts and experiences in Covenantal apologetics are based on the controlling plan of God.

Chapter 2- Set Christ Apart as Lord

In this chapter, the author K.S. Oliphint has tried to ground the Covenantal apologetics with the use of understanding of the triune God[3]. The Covenantal apologetics are defined using the rules and regulations made by God (Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit). In this chapter, the author has described the difference between reason and faith using Immanuel Kant’s division. The difference between reason and faith lays the foundation of Covenantal apologetics. The author has interacted with these differences in this chapter.

Interaction with an argument needs different theories and approaches. The author has discussed this interaction using two types of methods. In the first method, the event of interaction between Richard Dawkins and the Sceptical society has been quoted in which the arguments about Christianity have been discussed. In the second method, the arguments of Anthony Kenny were discussed which were against Classical Theism. These arguments define how to argue about the belief in Christianity.

Chapter 3- Proof to all Men

The basic concept of Chapter three is to clarify the concepts of people about Covenantal apologetics[4]. The author has related ten points discussed above with the covenant apologetics. He did these using different types of discussions and arguments. He also used Paul’s address to Greeks in Aeropaus in the 17th Act. The evidence to prove the reality and righteousness of something is very important. The chapter discusses and gives a brief analysis of those pieces of evidence and how this evidence can be collected. The burden of the proofs helps to define the doctrine of Christianity.

The existence of God has always been opposed and challenged by many types of people and there always have been people who have been proving His existence. The classical demonstrations about the existence of God have been discussed in this chapter. Humanists are the people who tend to deny the existence of God. They believe that human beings are doing what they want to do and there is no force above them. The author has discussed the conversation of a covenant apologetic person with a humanist in which the covenant tries to prove the existence of God and pursue that humanist.

Chapter 4- We Persuade Others

Oliphint has discussed the logic and trivium of the Ancient Greeks who didn’t believe in only one God[5]. They used to believe in almost 12 types of different Gods and Goddesses. They had made God for each aspect of life which seemed to be fine at that time. The rhetoric of Ancient Greeks and Medieval period people are not acceptable to the people of today. The trivium of Covenantal Apologetics defines God (Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit). Christianity denied the existence of 12 types of Gods. The author has discussed the difference between the trivium of Ancient Greeks and the Covenantal apologetics.

Apologetics is a wider term consisting of many concepts. It is all about persuasion and belief. The chapter discusses that the Covenantal Apologetics is more about persuasion than the demonstration of facts and figures. The believers of apologetics have faith in Christianity due to persuasion rather than demonstration. Aristotle’s three aspects of Rhetoric have also been discussed in the chapter which is ethos, pathos, and logos. Ethos is about the credibility of the rhetor in front of an audience. Pathos includes the persuasion of the audience using their emotions. Logos mean persuasion of the audience using logic and arguments.


Chapter 5- We Destroy Arguments: The Achilles’ heel

This chapter discusses the engagement of people with negative and positive apologetics(Oliphint 2013, 161-192). Negative apologetics includes the destruction of arguments against Christianity while positive apologetics refers to the arguments that support and recommend Christianity. The concept which is usually brought against Christianity is evil. Oliphinthas discussed negative apologetics using the example of the problem of evil. The problem of evil should be dealt with care. Negative apologetics is used to deal with the problem of evil and arguments against Christianity.

The basic concept that the Oliphinthas take along throughout the book is that the existence of God is real and Christianity is true. The conversation between a Covenantalapologist and an atheist has also been discussed in this book where the atheist has questioned evil and the Covenantal apologist has discussed and answered his question. The reason for discussing the conversations of Covenantal apologists with different types of believers is to define how to defend Christianity and its foundation.

Chapter 6- Walk-in Wisdom toward Outsiders

The persuasion of non-believers is a necessary and crucial task in Christianity. The chapter discusses the methods by which a Christian should interact with a non-believer and how he should persuade that non-believer toward Christianity[6]. Bible states that it is the duty of every believer of Christ to persuade the non-believers to accept Christianity and the existence of God (Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit). The author K.S. Oliphint has defined the method of convincing the non-believers toward Christianity using different types of conversations between the Covenantal apologists and atheists.

The example of a conversation between Covenantal apologists and Daniel Dennett has been quoted in the chapter where the Covenantal apologist has tried to persuade the non-believer about the existence of God and the concept of Christianity. Although this conversation is a fictitious conversation, it clarifies how the Christian should try to interact and persuade non-believers. In order to start a conversation with a non-believer, one should be competent enough to answer all of his questions. The last portion of the chapter discussed the possibility of competence to engage a person in a conversation with an atheist or non-believer. It defines what level of knowledge, the person needs to have in order to discuss Covenantal apologetics.

Chapter 7- You are very religious

The last chapter of the book tends to discuss the conversation of Covenantal apologists with a religious person[7]. Religious persons usually have much more knowledge about their religion and have firm faith. The persuasion of this person is a much more difficult task than the normal person. The author has discussed how Covenantal apologists should talk to and persuade these religious persons about the truth of Christianity. Oliphint has provided a number of examples of discussions and principles of these discussions. The persuasion of these religious people is a difficult yet crucial task. K.S. Oliphint has presented a hypothetical example of a conversation in which a Covenantal apologist has tried to persuade a religious Muslim with logic and arguments.

K.S. Oliphint has briefly discussed Christianity apologetics and the Christianity beliefs. The author takes the concept all along with him throughout the book that Christianity is a real and firm belief and the truth about Christianity eternally exists. Oliphint has quoted three principles of Aristotle to defend the arguments of Covenantal Apologetics. The book includes some difficult and technical terms about apologetics which can make it difficult to read for someone but the book contains the information about Covenantal apologetics with the use of arguments which are good examples and a good outline to study Christianity.

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